Life expectancy has reduced drastically from 63 in 1990 to 44 as a result of the impact of HIV and AIDs. However, prevalence rates have reduced significantly from 13.6 in 1997 to just under six per cent in 2006. The decline is attributed to several factors, including increased awareness and use of condoms, availability of anti-retroviral treatment and scale-up of prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Approximately 1.3 million Kenyans are currently living with HIV, including about 156,000 children. Despite rapidly expanded access to treatment in recent years, an estimated 140,000 adults still die annually due to AIDS-related illnesses. Out of an estimated 2.4 million orphans and vulnerable children in need of care and support, about 1.2 million are believed to be due to rising AIDS mortality. Latest estimates of incidence put the number of new HIV infections in the country between 236 and 397 per day.